IFRC: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies coordinates 192 national societies to provide humanitarian aid globally and responds to disasters, health services, builds community resilience and advocates for vulnerable populations guided by principles of humanity, impartiality and independence.



The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) stands as a global humanitarian organization with a rich history and a profound impact on the world stage. Established in 1919, in the aftermath of World War I, the IFRC has evolved into a pivotal force in disaster response, health services, and community development across nearly every country. This article by Academic Block dive into the history, structure, mission, activities, challenges, and future directions of the IFRC, highlighting its critical role in international humanitarian efforts.

History and Evolution

The roots of the IFRC trace back to the visionary leadership of Henry Dunant, a Swiss businessman who witnessed the horrors of the Battle of Solferino in 1859. Moved by the suffering of wounded soldiers, Dunant’s advocacy laid the groundwork for the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863. The ICRC was primarily tasked with protecting the dignity and rights of victims of armed conflicts through the Geneva Conventions.

After World War I, the need for a broader humanitarian network led to the creation of the League of Red Cross Societies in 1919, which later became the IFRC. Its formation aimed to coordinate efforts among national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies globally, promoting peace and assisting those affected by wars, natural disasters, and other emergencies.

Over the decades, the IFRC expanded its mandate beyond wartime emergencies to encompass disaster preparedness, health care, community resilience, and advocacy for vulnerable populations. Today, the IFRC operates in nearly every country, supported by millions of volunteers and staff dedicated to alleviating human suffering.

Structure and Governance

The IFRC operates under a unique structure that combines the strengths of its member societies and the principles of international cooperation. At its core are its 192 national societies, each representing a specific country or region and operating under the fundamental principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement: humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality.

The governance of the IFRC is overseen by the General Assembly, which convenes every two years and comprises representatives from all member societies. The General Assembly sets the strategic direction, policies, and priorities of the IFRC, ensuring alignment with humanitarian needs worldwide.

Day-to-day operations are managed by the Secretariat, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The Secretary General leads the Secretariat and is responsible for implementing the decisions of the General Assembly and overseeing the IFRC’s global initiatives and programs. Regional offices around the world support national societies in their humanitarian endeavors, tailoring responses to local needs and challenges.

Mission and Core Activities

The mission of the IFRC is rooted in its commitment to humanitarian principles and the alleviation of human suffering. Its core activities span a wide range of areas, reflecting the diverse needs of communities affected by crises and emergencies:

Disaster Response and Relief: The IFRC plays a crucial role in disaster response, providing immediate relief, such as food, shelter, and medical care, to affected populations. Through its network of national societies and partnerships, the IFRC ensures a coordinated and efficient response to natural disasters, conflicts, and public health emergencies.

Health and Care: Promoting health and well-being is central to the IFRC’s mission. It supports national societies in delivering essential health services, including vaccinations, disease prevention, and health education. During pandemics and health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the IFRC mobilizes resources to strengthen health systems and protect vulnerable communities.

Community Engagement and Resilience: Building resilient communities is a cornerstone of the IFRC’s approach to humanitarian action. It empowers local volunteers and partners to prepare for and respond to emergencies effectively. Community-based initiatives focus on disaster preparedness, livelihood support, and social cohesion, fostering sustainable solutions to long-term challenges.

Advocacy and Policy: The IFRC advocates for policies and practices that uphold humanitarian principles and protect the rights of vulnerable populations. It engages with governments, international organizations, and civil society to influence decision-making and promote respect for international humanitarian law.

Capacity Building and Training: Through training programs and knowledge sharing, the IFRC enhances the capacity of national societies and volunteers to deliver effective humanitarian assistance. Training initiatives cover first aid, disaster management, psychosocial support, and leadership development, ensuring a skilled workforce capable of responding to diverse emergencies.

Global Impact and Outreach

The IFRC’s global footprint and impact are evident in its extensive operations and partnerships worldwide. It collaborates closely with the ICRC and other humanitarian organizations to strengthen the humanitarian response system and uphold humanitarian principles in crisis settings. By leveraging its network of national societies and volunteers, the IFRC reaches millions of people annually, providing life-saving assistance and promoting community resilience.

In conflict-affected regions, the IFRC facilitates humanitarian access and protection for civilians, advocating for the rights of vulnerable groups, including refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and migrants. Its efforts focus on delivering impartial aid and fostering dialogue among conflicting parties to alleviate human suffering and promote peace.

During natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods, the IFRC mobilizes rapid response teams and relief supplies to affected communities. Its pre-positioned stocks and emergency funds enable swift deployment of resources, ensuring timely assistance to those in need.

In the realm of public health, the IFRC plays a critical role in pandemic preparedness and response. It supports vaccination campaigns, disease surveillance, and community health initiatives, reinforcing health systems and mitigating the impact of infectious diseases on vulnerable populations.

Challenges and Constraints

Despite its extensive reach and impact, the IFRC faces several challenges in fulfilling its humanitarian mandate:

Resource Mobilization: Securing adequate funding and resources to sustain humanitarian operations remains a persistent challenge. The IFRC relies on voluntary contributions from governments, donors, and the private sector, which can fluctuate in response to global economic conditions and competing priorities.

Access and Security: Operating in conflict zones and complex emergencies poses significant risks to IFRC staff and volunteers. Access restrictions, insecurity, and bureaucratic hurdles can hinder the delivery of aid to affected populations, jeopardizing humanitarian assistance and protection efforts.

Climate Change and Environmental Risks: The increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters linked to climate change present new challenges for humanitarian actors. The IFRC works to strengthen community resilience and adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of climate-related hazards on vulnerable communities.

Political and Legal Challenges: Adhering to humanitarian principles, including impartiality and neutrality, can be challenging in politically sensitive environments. The IFRC navigates complex political dynamics and legal frameworks to ensure the safety and protection of beneficiaries and uphold its commitment to humanitarian action.

Coordination and Collaboration: Effective coordination among humanitarian actors, including national societies, UN agencies, and NGOs, is crucial for maximizing impact and avoiding duplication of efforts. The IFRC works to enhance coordination mechanisms and partnerships to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian responses.

Future Directions and Innovations

Looking ahead, the IFRC continues to adapt and innovate in response to evolving humanitarian needs and global challenges:

Technology and Innovation: Embracing digital technologies and innovation is key to enhancing the IFRC’s humanitarian operations. From data analytics and early warning systems to mobile applications and virtual reality training, technology enables more efficient and targeted responses in humanitarian crises.

Partnerships and Collaborations: Strengthening partnerships with governments, private sector entities, and civil society organizations is essential for expanding the IFRC’s reach and impact. Strategic collaborations foster innovation, resource mobilization, and knowledge exchange, driving collective action for humanitarian outcomes.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Aligning humanitarian action with the SDGs provides a framework for addressing root causes of vulnerability and promoting sustainable development. The IFRC integrates SDG principles into its programs, advocating for inclusive and equitable solutions that leave no one behind.

Youth Engagement and Empowerment: Harnessing the energy and creativity of young people is crucial for the IFRC’s future resilience and innovation. Youth volunteers play a vital role in community-based initiatives, advocacy campaigns, and disaster response efforts, contributing to positive social change and leadership development.

Adaptive Management and Learning: Adopting a culture of adaptive management and continuous learning enables the IFRC to respond effectively to dynamic humanitarian challenges. Monitoring, evaluation, and knowledge sharing inform evidence-based decision-making and programmatic improvements across its global network.

Final Words

In conclusion, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) stands as a beacon of hope and compassion in the face of adversity. From its humble beginnings to its present-day global impact, the IFRC has remained steadfast in its commitment to humanity, impartiality, and solidarity. By mobilizing resources, empowering communities, and advocating for vulnerable populations, the IFRC continues to uphold the principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, promoting peace and alleviating human suffering worldwide. Hope you liked this article by Academic Block, please provide your insightful thoughts to make this article better. Thanks for Reading!

This Article will answer your questions like:

+ What is the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies? >

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is a global humanitarian organization that coordinates the activities of national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, providing disaster response, promoting health and social programs, and enhancing humanitarian standards worldwide.

+ What is the difference between IFRC and Red Cross? >

The IFRC is the international federation that coordinates the activities of national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. The Red Cross refers to the individual national societies that operate within specific countries, providing humanitarian aid and services locally.

+ What is the role of the IFRC? >

The IFRC's role is to lead and coordinate international humanitarian response, support national societies in disaster relief, health, and social programs, and promote humanitarian principles and values globally to improve community resilience and well-being.

+ What is the relationship between ICRC and IFRC? >

The IFRC and ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) are separate but complementary components of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The ICRC focuses on conflict zones and promoting international humanitarian law, while the IFRC focuses on disaster response and community health.

+ How does the IFRC operate globally? >

The IFRC operates globally by coordinating with national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, deploying emergency response teams, providing disaster relief, implementing health and social programs, and working through regional offices to support local humanitarian efforts.

+ What are the core principles of the IFRC? >

The core principles of the IFRC are humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality. These principles guide its humanitarian efforts, ensuring aid is provided without discrimination and with respect for human dignity.

+ How does one become a volunteer for the IFRC? >

To become a volunteer for the IFRC, individuals can contact their local Red Cross or Red Crescent society, which provides information on volunteer opportunities, training, and how to get involved in various humanitarian activities and community programs.

+ What countries are members of the IFRC? >

All countries with recognized national Red Cross or Red Crescent societies are members of the IFRC. This includes 192 national societies from various regions of the world, representing almost every country globally.

+ What is the role of the IFRC in international humanitarian law? >

The IFRC promotes international humanitarian law (IHL) by disseminating knowledge, supporting national societies in their IHL activities, and advocating for the implementation and respect of IHL to protect human dignity during armed conflicts and disasters.

+ How does the IFRC raise funds and manage donations? >

The IFRC raises funds through donations from governments, international organizations, private donors, and fundraising campaigns. It manages donations by ensuring transparency and accountability, using funds efficiently to support humanitarian programs and disaster response efforts globally.

History of IFRC

Formation of the League of Red Cross Societies (1919): In 1919, following World War I, the League of Red Cross Societies was founded in Paris, France. This organization aimed to unite national Red Cross societies worldwide under a common mission of humanitarian service. Its formation was a response to the widespread devastation caused by the war and the recognition of the need for a coordinated international humanitarian network.

Expansion and Renaming (1920s-1930s): Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the League expanded its membership and activities, focusing on disaster response, health care, and community development. It became known as the International Federation of Red Cross Societies (IFRC) in 1931, reflecting its broader mandate and global reach.

Humanitarian Action During World War II: During World War II, the IFRC played a crucial role in providing humanitarian assistance to civilians affected by the conflict. It supported relief efforts for prisoners of war, refugees, and displaced persons, demonstrating its commitment to impartiality and neutrality in times of war.

Post-War Reconstruction and Growth: In the post-war period, the IFRC intensified its efforts in reconstruction and rehabilitation, focusing on rebuilding communities and restoring essential services. It expanded its network of national societies and strengthened partnerships with governments and international organizations.

Adoption of Fundamental Principles: The IFRC, along with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), adopted the seven Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in 1965. These principles, including humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality, form the ethical and operational framework of the IFRC’s humanitarian action.

Evolution into a Global Humanitarian Leader: Over the decades, the IFRC has evolved into a leading humanitarian organization, responding to natural disasters, armed conflicts, public health emergencies, and other humanitarian crises worldwide. It has expanded its scope to include disaster preparedness, health promotion, community resilience, and advocacy for vulnerable populations.

Modern Challenges and Adaptation: In the 21st century, the IFRC continues to face new challenges, such as climate change, pandemics, and complex emergencies. It adapts by leveraging technology, strengthening partnerships, and advocating for policy changes to address emerging humanitarian needs effectively.

Steps to become Volunteer in IFRC

Research and Understanding

  • Research: Start by researching the IFRC and its national societies in your country or region. Understand the mission, values, and types of humanitarian activities they are involved in.

  • Roles: Explore the different volunteer roles available within the IFRC. These roles can vary widely, from disaster response and relief to health promotion, community outreach, administration, and specialized technical support.

Contact Your National Society

  • Find Your National Society: Identify the national Red Cross or Red Crescent society in your country. The IFRC operates through these national societies, which are often responsible for recruiting and managing volunteers locally.

  • Contact Information: Visit the website or contact the national society directly to inquire about volunteer opportunities. They can provide specific information on current vacancies, requirements, and the application process.

Application and Requirements

  • Application Process: Follow the application procedures outlined by your national society. This typically involves filling out an application form and possibly submitting a resume or CV outlining your skills, experience, and motivation for volunteering.

  • Requirements: Be prepared to meet certain requirements, which may include:

Age requirements (usually 18 years or older, but some roles may be available for younger volunteers).

Background checks or clearances, especially for roles involving vulnerable populations.

Specific skills or qualifications, depending on the volunteer position (e.g., first aid certification, language proficiency, technical expertise).

Training and Orientation

  • Training: Successful applicants may undergo training and orientation sessions provided by the national society or the IFRC. This training can cover topics such as the Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, disaster response protocols, health and safety procedures, and specific job-related skills.

  • Volunteer Agreement: Sign a volunteer agreement outlining your rights, responsibilities, and commitment to the IFRC’s principles and values.

Deployment and Support

  • Deployment: Once accepted as a volunteer, you may be deployed to participate in local, national, or international humanitarian operations, depending on the needs and your availability.

  • Support: Receive ongoing support and supervision from the national society or IFRC staff. This can include mentoring, feedback sessions, and access to resources and tools necessary for your volunteer role.

Continuous Engagement

  • Commitment: Maintain your commitment to volunteering by actively participating in scheduled activities, adhering to guidelines and policies, and contributing positively to the humanitarian efforts of the IFRC.

  • Feedback and Development: Provide feedback on your volunteer experience and seek opportunities for personal and professional development within the IFRC network.

Additional Tips

  • Flexibility: Be flexible and adaptable to changing circumstances, as volunteer roles may involve unpredictable situations and environments.

  • Language Skills: Depending on the location and role, proficiency in languages other than your native language may be beneficial.

  • Long-Term Engagement: Consider long-term engagement with the IFRC if you are passionate about humanitarian work, as ongoing commitment and dedication are often valued in volunteer roles.

Challenges faced by IFRC

Funding Constraints: Securing adequate and sustainable funding remains a significant challenge for the IFRC. Humanitarian needs are increasing due to conflicts, natural disasters, and health emergencies, but funding sources can be volatile and unpredictable. The IFRC relies heavily on voluntary contributions from governments, private donors, and international organizations, which can fluctuate in response to global economic conditions and competing priorities.

Complex Emergencies and Access Issues: Operating in complex humanitarian emergencies, including conflicts and situations of violence, poses serious challenges for the IFRC. Access restrictions, security risks, bureaucratic obstacles, and political tensions can hinder the delivery of humanitarian assistance to affected populations. Ensuring safe access to vulnerable communities remains a persistent challenge, impacting the IFRC’s ability to provide timely and effective aid.

Climate Change and Environmental Risks: The increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters linked to climate change pose a growing humanitarian challenge for the IFRC. Events such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and wildfires are becoming more severe, affecting millions of people each year. Addressing climate-related risks, promoting disaster preparedness, and building community resilience are crucial priorities for the IFRC in mitigating the impact of environmental hazards on vulnerable populations.

Public Health Emergencies: Global health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, present significant challenges for the IFRC. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for robust public health responses, including vaccination campaigns, disease prevention, and healthcare support. Responding to infectious diseases while maintaining essential humanitarian services requires coordination, resources, and expertise in health emergency management.

Protection of Humanitarian Workers: Ensuring the safety and security of humanitarian workers, including IFRC staff and volunteers, is a critical challenge. Humanitarian personnel face risks of violence, attacks, and harassment in conflict zones and volatile environments. Protecting their safety, providing training on security protocols, and advocating for respect for humanitarian principles are essential for maintaining effective humanitarian operations.

Capacity Building and Coordination: Building the capacity of national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies to respond effectively to emergencies is another challenge for the IFRC. Strengthening local volunteer networks, enhancing technical skills, and promoting leadership development are crucial for improving the resilience and preparedness of communities facing humanitarian crises. Coordination with local authorities, international partners, and other humanitarian actors is essential for maximizing the impact of humanitarian interventions and avoiding duplication of efforts.

Advocacy and Humanitarian Diplomacy: Advocating for adherence to international humanitarian law, promoting humanitarian principles, and engaging in humanitarian diplomacy are ongoing challenges for the IFRC. Addressing political and legal obstacles, advocating for humanitarian access, and influencing policy decisions to prioritize humanitarian needs require strategic engagement with governments, international organizations, and civil society.

Innovation and Adaptation: Adapting to evolving humanitarian challenges and leveraging innovation are critical for the IFRC. Embracing digital technologies, data analytics, and new approaches to humanitarian assistance can enhance efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability in delivering aid. Innovations in disaster preparedness, early warning systems, and community engagement are essential for addressing complex humanitarian crises.

Headquaters: Geneva, Switzerland

Formed on: May 05, 1919

Head: President Kate Forbes

Organisation Type: Humanitarian Aid Organisation

Website: www.ifrc.org

Core Principle of IFRC

Humanity: The IFRC’s mission is to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found. It aims to protect life and health, ensure respect for all human beings, and alleviate human suffering.

Impartiality: The IFRC provides assistance based on need, without discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class, or political opinions. It prioritizes assistance to the most vulnerable individuals and communities.

Neutrality: The IFRC does not take sides in hostilities or engage in controversies of a political, racial, religious, or ideological nature. It maintains independence and avoids actions that could be perceived as favoring one party over another.

Independence: The IFRC operates independently of any government, ensuring autonomy in its humanitarian action. This allows it to maintain credibility, gain access to affected populations, and uphold the principles of impartiality and neutrality.

Voluntary Service: The IFRC is a voluntary relief movement, not prompted in any manner by desire for gain. It relies on volunteers, both within its member societies and internationally, who contribute their time, skills, and efforts to humanitarian activities.

Unity: The IFRC is a worldwide network of national societies united in their mission to assist the most vulnerable. It promotes cooperation and collaboration among its member societies, fostering solidarity and joint action in humanitarian endeavors.

Universality: The IFRC is open to all, aiming to extend its humanitarian mission to all countries. It strives to promote and develop the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement globally, ensuring its principles and values are universally recognized and respected.

Difference between IFRC and Red Cross

Red Cross

  • National Societies: The Red Cross refers to national Red Cross societies established in individual countries, such as the American Red Cross, British Red Cross, or Japanese Red Cross. These societies are autonomous and operate under the Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, including humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality.
  • Local Operations: Each national Red Cross society operates independently within its own country, responding to local humanitarian needs, disasters, and crises. They are often involved in providing emergency assistance, disaster relief, health services, blood donation programs, community resilience projects, and humanitarian advocacy within their respective nations.
  • Membership: National societies can become members of the IFRC, which provides them with a platform for collaboration, coordination, and support in their humanitarian efforts. Membership in the IFRC allows national societies to benefit from global resources, training, technical expertise, and access to international networks.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)

  • Global Federation: The IFRC is a global federation of national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies from around the world. It serves as the umbrella organization coordinating the collective efforts and resources of its member societies to enhance their capacity in humanitarian action.
  • Coordination and Support: The IFRC supports its member societies by facilitating international coordination, providing technical assistance, mobilizing resources for large-scale emergencies, and advocating for humanitarian principles and rights. It acts as a platform for sharing best practices, knowledge exchange, and capacity building among national societies.
  • Advocacy and Representation: The IFRC represents its member societies at the international level, engaging with governments, international organizations (like the United Nations), and other humanitarian actors to advocate for humanitarian policies, promote respect for international humanitarian law, and address global challenges affecting vulnerable populations.

Key Differences

  • Scope: The Red Cross primarily operates at the national level, focusing on humanitarian activities within a specific country. The IFRC operates globally, coordinating activities among national societies and responding to international humanitarian crises.
  • Role: National Red Cross societies implement humanitarian programs and services directly within their countries, while the IFRC provides support, coordination, and advocacy at the global level to strengthen the collective impact of its member societies.
  • Membership: National societies are members of the IFRC, which supports them through capacity building, resource mobilization, and advocacy. The IFRC does not replace national societies but complements their efforts on a broader scale.

Role of IFRC in International Humanitarian Law

Dissemination and Promotion of IHL: The IFRC actively promotes awareness and understanding of international humanitarian law among its member societies, volunteers, governments, armed forces, and the general public. It collaborates with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other partners to disseminate IHL principles and norms, ensuring they are respected and implemented in times of armed conflict and other emergencies.

Advocacy and Policy Development: The IFRC engages in advocacy efforts to encourage states and non-state actors to comply with international humanitarian law. It advocates for the protection of civilians, wounded combatants, detainees, and other vulnerable groups during armed conflicts. Through dialogue and diplomacy, the IFRC seeks to influence policies and practices that align with humanitarian principles and legal frameworks.

Support for Humanitarian Action: In situations of armed conflict and other emergencies, the IFRC supports its member societies in delivering humanitarian assistance in accordance with international humanitarian law. This includes providing relief to civilians affected by conflict, facilitating access to healthcare and essential services, and ensuring respect for the rights of victims of war.

Training and Capacity Building: The IFRC conducts training programs and capacity-building initiatives to enhance the understanding and application of international humanitarian law among its volunteers, staff, and partners. Training may cover topics such as the Geneva Conventions, protection of civilians, human rights in armed conflict, and the roles and responsibilities of humanitarian actors under IHL.

Monitoring and Reporting: The IFRC monitors compliance with international humanitarian law and reports violations or breaches to relevant authorities, including governments, international organizations, and the United Nations. It contributes to efforts aimed at holding perpetrators accountable for violations of IHL and advocating for justice and reparations for victims of war crimes and atrocities.

Emergency Response and Protection: During armed conflicts and other situations of violence, the IFRC deploys emergency response teams to provide immediate humanitarian assistance and protection to affected populations. This includes distributing food, shelter, medical care, and essential supplies while advocating for safe access to humanitarian aid and respect for humanitarian principles.

Academic References on the IFRC

  1. American Red Cross. (2019). The American Red Cross and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
  2. Beigbeder, Y. (2000). International humanitarian assistance: Disaster relief actions in international law and organization. Oxford University Press.
  3. IFRC. (2011). World Disasters Report 2011: Focus on hunger and malnutrition. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  4. IFRC. (2015). World Disasters Report 2015: Focus on local actors, the key to humanitarian effectiveness. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  5. IFRC. (2018). World Disasters Report 2018: Leaving no one behind. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  6. IFRC. (2020). World Disasters Report 2020: Come heat or high water: Tackling the humanitarian impacts of climate change together. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  7. IFRC Reference Centre for Psychosocial Support. (2019). Psychosocial support in disasters: How can national societies build resilience and reduce vulnerability? International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  8. International Committee of the Red Cross & International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (1996). The fundamental principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  9. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2006). World disasters report: Focus on neglected crises. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  10. Labhardt, N. D., & Aboa, S. M. (2019). Red Cross and Red Crescent in action: Basic principles and lessons learned from the response to the West African Ebola virus disease epidemic. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 10(1), 966.
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