Birth of Indian Cinema

Birth of Indian Cinema: Lights, Camera and Action

Birth of Indian cinema dates back to 1913 with Dadasaheb Phalke’s silent film “Raja Harishchandra.” This pioneering work marked the inception of a wide industry that has since flourished, producing diverse narratives and influencing global cinema, making India one of the world’s cinematic powerhouses.

Birth of Indian Cinema

Overview

The genesis of Indian cinema is a tale of innovation, experimentation, and cultural amalgamation. Rooted in the late 19th century, the inception of this vibrant cinematic tradition was marked by pioneering efforts that laid the foundation for one of the world’s most prolific film industries. From humble beginnings with silent films to the emergence of vibrant Bollywood spectacles, in this article by Academic Block we will explore how Indian cinema has evolved into a global phenomenon, reflects the nation’s diverse cultures, languages, and narratives.

Early Beginnings: The Advent of Cinema in India

The story of Indian cinema begins with the arrival of the Lumière Brothers’ Cinematographe in Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1896. This momentous event marked the introduction of moving pictures to Indian audiences, captivating them with the magic of visual storytelling. The first public screening of films took place at Watson’s Hotel, showcasing short clips of everyday life, travelogues, and snippets of foreign culture. The novelty of these moving images mesmerized spectators, laying the groundwork for the burgeoning film industry.

The Lumière Brothers’ screenings inspired Indian entrepreneurs and artists to enter into the realm of filmmaking. Among the early pioneers was Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar, often hailed as the father of Indian cinema. In 1899, Bhatavdekar captured the first indigenous documentary film titled “The Wrestlers,” depicting a wrestling match in Mumbai’s Hanging Gardens. This landmark production heralded the dawn of Indian filmmaking, showcasing local subjects through the lens of the moving image.

The Silent Era: Experimentation and Innovation

The early 20th century witnessed a period of experimentation and innovation in Indian cinema, characterized by the production of silent films. Filmmakers such as Dadasaheb Phalke, hailed as the pioneer of Indian cinema, played a pivotal role during this formative phase. Phalke’s magnum opus, “Raja Harishchandra,” released in 1913, marked the inception of Indian feature filmmaking, establishing a template for future cinematic endeavors.

“Raja Harishchandra” exemplified Phalke’s mastery of storytelling and visual aesthetics, drawing inspiration from Indian mythology and folklore. The film’s success paved the way for a burgeoning industry, with filmmakers across the country venturing into filmmaking. Silent films became a popular form of entertainment, with audiences flocking to cinemas to experience the magic of moving pictures.

During the silent era, regional cinema flourished, with filmmaking hubs emerging in various parts of the country. In Bengal, filmmakers like Hiralal Sen and Dhirendra Nath Ganguly pioneered the production of Bengali cinema, while in South India, the efforts of R. Nataraja Mudaliar and Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu contributed to the growth of Tamil and Telugu cinema, respectively. These regional industries laid the groundwork for the diverse cinematic landscape that would characterize Indian cinema in the years to come.

Birth of Indian Cinema

The Advent of Sound: Transforming Indian Cinema

The introduction of sound in cinema revolutionized the Indian film industry, opening up new avenues for storytelling and artistic expression. The transition from silent films to “talkies” marked a significant milestone in the evolution of Indian cinema, reshaping the way films were produced and consumed.

The first Indian sound film, “Alam Ara,” directed by Ardeshir Irani, was released in 1931, ushering in a new era of cinematic innovation. The film, known for its melodious music and captivating performances, captivated audiences and paved the way for the dominance of sound in Indian cinema.

The advent of sound also led to the emergence of musical dramas, a genre that would come to define Indian cinema in the years to come. Filmmakers like V. Shantaram, Mehboob Khan, and Raj Kapoor embraced the musical format, infusing their films with soul-stirring melodies and elaborate dance sequences. Songs became an integral part of the cinematic experience, serving as vehicles for emotional expression and narrative progression.

Golden Age of Indian Cinema: The 1950s and 1960s

The post-independence era witnessed the golden age of Indian cinema, marked by a proliferation of cinematic masterpieces that showcased the nation’s cultural richness and social complexities. Filmmakers like Satyajit Ray, Guru Dutt, and Bimal Roy emerged as torchbearers of artistic excellence, crafting films that transcended borders and resonated with audiences worldwide.

Satyajit Ray’s “The Apu Trilogy,” comprising “Pather Panchali” (1955), “Aparajito” (1956), and “Apur Sansar” (1959), garnered international acclaim for its poignant portrayal of the human condition. Ray’s meticulous attention to detail and nuanced storytelling elevated Indian cinema to new heights, earning him accolades at prestigious film festivals around the globe.

Meanwhile, filmmakers in Mumbai (then Bombay) were exploring themes of love, sacrifice, and societal injustice through the lens of melodrama. Guru Dutt’s “Pyaasa” (1957) and “Kaagaz Ke Phool” (1959) challenged conventional norms, offering a critique of the prevailing social order. These films, characterized by their evocative visuals and soul-stirring music, left an indelible mark on Indian cinema, inspiring generations of filmmakers to come.

Bollywood and Beyond: The Evolution of Indian Cinema

The term “Bollywood” emerged in the 1970s to describe the Hindi-language film industry centered in Mumbai. Bollywood films became synonymous with grandiose musicals, larger-than-life performances, and extravagant sets, captivating audiences both domestically and internationally. Blockbusters like “Sholay” (1975), “Deewaar” (1975), and “Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge” (1995) solidified Bollywood’s status as a global cultural phenomenon, transcending linguistic and cultural barriers.

While Bollywood remained at the forefront of Indian cinema, regional industries continued to thrive, producing a diverse array of films in languages such as Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Bengali. Filmmakers like Mani Ratnam, Ram Gopal Varma, and Priyadarshan carved a niche for themselves in regional cinema, pushing the boundaries of storytelling and cinematic technique.

The 21st century brought with it new challenges and opportunities for Indian cinema. The advent of digital technology revolutionized the filmmaking process, democratizing access to filmmaking tools and platforms. Independent filmmakers and content creators began to challenge the hegemony of mainstream cinema, exploring unconventional themes and narrative styles.

Final Words

The birth of Indian cinema in the late 19th century marked the beginning of a transformative journey that continues to unfold to this day. From silent films to talkies, from black and white to color, Indian cinema has evolved in leaps and bounds, reflecting the nation’s rich tapestry of culture, tradition, and diversity. As we celebrate the legacy of Indian cinema, we are reminded of its enduring impact on global popular culture and its ability to inspire, entertain, and provoke thought. As the industry continues to evolve and adapt to changing times, one thing remains certain – the magic of Indian cinema will continue to captivate audiences for generations to come. Hope you enjoyed reading with Academic Block, please provide your insightful thoughts in comment section to make this article better. Thanks for Reading!

This Article will answer your questions like:

+ Who started Indian cinema? >

Indian cinema began with the visionary efforts of Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, popularly known as Dadasaheb Phalke. His groundbreaking silent film "Raja Harishchandra" in 1913 marked the birth of Indian cinema, establishing Phalke as the pioneer of this transformative art form in India.

+ When did Indian cinema start? >

Indian cinema commenced its journey with the release of Dadasaheb Phalke's "Raja Harishchandra" on May 3, 1913. This marked the beginning of a vibrant and prolific industry that has since evolved into one of the largest in the world, influencing cultural narratives and entertainment globally.

+ Who were the pioneers of Indian cinema? >

Dadasaheb Phalke, Hiralal Sen, and Ardeshir Irani were among the pioneering figures who laid the foundation of Indian cinema. Their innovative techniques and entrepreneurial spirit contributed significantly to the growth and development of early Indian filmmaking.

+ What is the golden period of Indian cinema? >

The golden period of Indian cinema, often considered from the late 1940s to the 1960s, witnessed a remarkable confluence of artistic brilliance and commercial success. This era produced iconic films and legendary filmmakers like Satyajit Ray, Guru Dutt, and Bimal Roy, shaping the cultural and cinematic landscape of India.

+ What were the early challenges faced by Indian filmmakers? >

Early Indian filmmakers faced numerous challenges such as lack of technical infrastructure, limited funding options, and societal skepticism towards cinema as an art form. Despite these obstacles, their passion and perseverance laid the groundwork for the growth of Indian cinema.

+ What were the contributions of Hiralal Sen in early Indian cinema? >

Hiralal Sen, a pioneer in Indian cinema, contributed significantly by producing and directing short films in the late 19th century. His experimentation with filmmaking techniques and documentation of cultural events established him as a seminal figure in the nascent Indian film industry.

+ What role did studios like Bombay Talkies and Prabhat Film Company play in shaping Indian cinema? >

Studios such as Bombay Talkies and Prabhat Film Company were instrumental in shaping Indian cinema by fostering artistic innovation and commercial success. They provided a platform for talented filmmakers and actors, produced iconic films, and contributed to the professionalization of the Indian film industry during its formative years.

Role of Bombay Talkies and Prabhat Film Company in shaping Indian Cinema

Bombay Talkies:
  • Founded in 1934 by Himanshu Rai and Devika Rani, Bombay Talkies was one of the earliest and most influential film studios in India.
  • Bombay Talkies played a crucial role in modernizing Indian cinema by introducing advanced production techniques, professional training for actors and technicians, and adherence to high production values.
  • The studio produced a diverse range of films that reflected contemporary social issues, including “Achhut Kanya” (1936), which addressed caste discrimination, and “Kismet” (1943), one of the earliest Indian films to achieve blockbuster success.
  • Bombay Talkies was also known for nurturing talent and launching the careers of prominent actors and filmmakers, including Ashok Kumar, Dev Anand, Raj Kapoor, and Dilip Kumar.
  • Through its emphasis on professionalism, innovation, and artistic excellence, Bombay Talkies set new standards for Indian cinema and inspired subsequent generations of filmmakers.
Prabhat Film Company:
  • Founded in 1929 by V. Shantaram, Vishnupant Damle, S. Fattelal, and K.R. Dhaiber, Prabhat Film Company was another pioneering studio that played a pivotal role in the development of Indian cinema.
  • Prabhat Film Company focused on producing socially relevant and artistically ambitious films that showcased India’s cultural heritage and addressed contemporary issues.
  • The studio produced several landmark films, including “Seeta” (1934), a retelling of the Ramayana with a feminist perspective, and “Duniya Na Mane” (1937), a romantic drama that challenged prevailing social norms.
  • Prabhat Film Company was known for its technical innovation and experimentation, including the use of synchronized sound, innovative camera techniques, and elaborate set designs.
  • The studio also prioritized the training and development of its talent pool, fostering a collaborative and creative work environment that attracted some of the finest actors, directors, and technicians of the time.
  • Prabhat Film Company’s commitment to artistic integrity and social relevance earned it critical acclaim and established its legacy as one of the most esteemed studios in Indian cinema history.

Challenges faced during the birth of Indian cinema

Technological Limitations: During the early years of Indian cinema, filmmaking technology was rudimentary and underdeveloped. Filmmakers faced challenges such as limited access to cameras and film equipment, primitive film processing techniques, and a lack of expertise in cinematography and editing.

Financial Constraints: Establishing a film industry required significant financial investment, which was often a barrier for aspiring filmmakers. Procuring equipment, renting shooting locations, hiring actors and crew, and funding the production and distribution of films posed considerable challenges due to the lack of access to capital and formal financing mechanisms.

Cultural Resistance: Indian society, particularly in conservative regions, was initially apprehensive about the concept of cinema. Films were viewed with suspicion and perceived as a threat to traditional values and moral standards. Filmmakers had to contend with societal norms, religious sensitivities, and cultural taboos, leading to censorship, protests, and legal challenges.

Infrastructure Development: The infrastructure required for film production and exhibition was lacking in the early years of Indian cinema. There was a scarcity of purpose-built studios, sound stages, and post-production facilities, forcing filmmakers to make do with makeshift arrangements and improvised techniques. Additionally, the shortage of cinema halls and screening venues limited the distribution and exhibition of films, hindering their reach and accessibility.

Distribution and Exhibition: The distribution and exhibition of films posed logistical challenges for early filmmakers. Limited distribution networks, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and the absence of standardized exhibition practices made it difficult to reach audiences across diverse geographical regions. Competition from other forms of entertainment, such as theater and live performances, further complicated the distribution landscape.

Language and Cultural Diversity: India is a linguistically and culturally diverse country with numerous regional languages and dialects. Filmmakers had to navigate linguistic, cultural, and regional differences while crafting narratives and selecting themes that resonated with audiences across the country. This required a nuanced understanding of local sensibilities and preferences, as well as the ability to adapt storytelling techniques to suit diverse cultural contexts.

Competition from Foreign Films: Imported films, particularly those from Hollywood, posed stiff competition to indigenous productions in the early years of Indian cinema. Foreign films enjoyed technological superiority, higher production values, and greater marketing budgets, making it challenging for Indian filmmakers to compete. Protectionist measures and import restrictions were implemented to safeguard the interests of the nascent Indian film industry.

Key pioneers of Indian cinema

Dadasaheb Phalke: Widely regarded as the father of Indian cinema, Dadasaheb Phalke was a pioneering filmmaker who directed and produced India’s first full-length feature film, “Raja Harishchandra” (1913). Phalke’s visionary work laid the groundwork for the Indian film industry and inspired generations of filmmakers.

Hiralal Sen: Hiralal Sen was one of the earliest filmmakers in India, known for his pioneering contributions to Indian cinema during the silent era. He produced several short films and documentaries, including “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves” (1903), marking the beginning of Bengali cinema.

Ardeshir Irani: Ardeshir Irani was a prominent filmmaker and studio owner who made significant contributions to Indian cinema. He directed India’s first sound film, “Alam Ara” (1931), marking the beginning of the talkie era in Indian cinema.

Prabhat Film Company: Founded in 1929, the Prabhat Film Company was one of the pioneering film studios in India. Under the leadership of filmmakers like V. Shantaram, Vishnupant Govind Damle, and K.R. Dhaiber, Prabhat produced several critically acclaimed films, including “Sant Tukaram” (1936) and “Duniya Na Mane” (1937).

Devika Rani: Devika Rani was one of the earliest female stars of Indian cinema and the co-founder of the Bombay Talkies studio. Known as the “First Lady of Indian Cinema,” she played a crucial role in shaping the studio’s success and fostering talent in the industry.

Bimal Roy: Bimal Roy was a renowned filmmaker known for his socially relevant and humanistic approach to filmmaking. His films, such as “Do Bigha Zamin” (1953) and “Bandini” (1963), explored themes of social justice, poverty, and human suffering, earning him critical acclaim and accolades.

Raj Kapoor: Raj Kapoor was a legendary actor, director, and producer who made significant contributions to Indian cinema. Known as the “Showman of Indian Cinema,” he was instrumental in popularizing Hindi cinema both nationally and internationally with films like “Awaara” (1951) and “Shree 420” (1955).

Satyajit Ray: Satyajit Ray was a pioneering filmmaker who introduced Indian cinema to the global stage with his acclaimed “Apu Trilogy” (“Pather Panchali” – 1955, “Aparajito” – 1956, “Apur Sansar” – 1959). His realistic portrayal of Indian life and culture earned him international recognition and established him as one of the greatest filmmakers of all time.

Mehboob Khan: Mehboob Khan was a prominent filmmaker known for his epic dramas and socially relevant themes. His film “Mother India” (1957) was India’s first submission for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and is considered one of the greatest Indian films of all time.

Guru Dutt: Guru Dutt was a multifaceted talent known for his acting, directing, and producing skills. His films, such as “Pyaasa” (1957) and “Kaagaz Ke Phool” (1959), are considered classics of Indian cinema and are celebrated for their artistic brilliance and emotional depth.

Academic References on the birth of Indian cinema

Books:

  1. Barnouw, E. (1993). Indian film. Oxford University Press.
  2. Dwyer, R. (2005). 100 Bollywood films. British Film Institute.
  3. Garga, B. D. (1996). So many cinemas: The motion picture in India. Eminence Designs.
  4. Joshi, P. K. (2015). Bollywood: Popular Indian cinema. Oxford University Press.
  5. Mehta, D. (2010). Moving with the times: Cinema in 20th century India. Penguin Books.
  6. Rajadhyaksha, A., & Willemen, P. (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian cinema. Routledge.

Journal Articles:

  1. Bose, M. (2018). Early Indian cinema and the construction of modernity. South Asian Popular Culture, 16(1), 33-47.
  2. Datta, R. (2010). Modernity and the cinematic imagination: Exploring the birth of Indian cinema. South Asian Popular Culture, 8(3), 237-251.
  3. Ghosh, D. (2013). The magic of moving pictures: A historical analysis of the birth of Indian cinema. Journal of Indian Cinema, 2(1), 25-40.
  4. Mazumdar, R. (2007). Dream machine: Exploring the birth of Indian cinema. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(19), 1741-1749.
  5. Mukherjee, M. (2012). Revisiting the birth of Indian cinema: A critical analysis. Studies in South Asian Film & Media, 4(1), 51-66.
  6. Ranganathan, M. (2016). Spectacular beginnings: The birth of Indian cinema and its impact on society. Journal of Asian Cinema, 26(2), 154-169.

Significance of Hiralal Sen’s contribution in Indian Cinema

Introduction of Cinematic Techniques: Hiralal Sen was among the first Indian filmmakers to experiment with cinematic techniques such as shooting, editing, and screening films. He was instrumental in introducing these novel techniques to Indian audiences, thereby paving the way for the growth and development of the indigenous film industry.

Pioneering Film Productions: Sen’s filmmaking endeavors marked the inception of Bengali cinema, laying the foundation for the vibrant regional film industry. His early productions, such as “Bilwamangal” (1919) and “Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra” (1917), showcased his prowess as a filmmaker and contributed to the cultural enrichment of Indian cinema.

Cultural Representation: Sen’s films often depicted themes and narratives drawn from Indian mythology, folklore, and literature. By representing indigenous stories and traditions on the silver screen, he played a crucial role in fostering a sense of cultural identity and pride among Indian audiences.

Promotion of Indigenous Talent: Through his film productions, Sen provided a platform for indigenous actors, technicians, and artists to showcase their talents. His efforts helped nurture a pool of homegrown talent within the Indian film industry, laying the groundwork for future generations of filmmakers and performers.

Technological Innovation: Sen’s keen interest in technological innovation led him to experiment with various aspects of filmmaking equipment and techniques. He developed his own camera and film processing techniques, demonstrating a pioneering spirit that contributed to the advancement of Indian cinema technology.

Cultural Preservation: Sen’s films serve as valuable historical artifacts, offering glimpses into early 20th-century Indian society, culture, and traditions. His contributions to early Indian cinema not only entertained audiences but also preserved aspects of India’s cultural heritage for future generations to appreciate.

Facts on the Birth of Cinema

First Film Screening: The Lumière Brothers’ Cinematographe made its debut in Mumbai (then Bombay) on July 7, 1896, marking the first public screening of films in India. This event, held at Watson’s Hotel, introduced Indian audiences to the magic of moving pictures.

Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar: Known as the father of Indian cinema, Bhatavdekar captured the first indigenous documentary film titled “The Wrestlers” in 1899. This short film showcased a wrestling match in Mumbai’s Hanging Gardens, marking a significant milestone in Indian filmmaking.

Dadasaheb Phalke and “Raja Harishchandra”: Dadasaheb Phalke’s “Raja Harishchandra,” released in 1913, is considered the first Indian feature film. Inspired by Indian mythology, the film laid the foundation for the Indian film industry and established Phalke as a pioneering filmmaker.

Regional Cinema: Alongside the growth of mainstream cinema, regional industries flourished during the silent era. Filmmakers like Hiralal Sen in Bengal and Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu in South India played crucial roles in the development of Bengali, Tamil, and Telugu cinema, respectively.

Introduction of Sound: The release of “Alam Ara” in 1931 marked the dawn of sound in Indian cinema. Directed by Ardeshir Irani, this pioneering film heralded the era of “talkies” and transformed the way films were produced and consumed in India.

Golden Age of Indian Cinema: The post-independence era witnessed the golden age of Indian cinema, characterized by the emergence of cinematic masterpieces from filmmakers like Satyajit Ray, Guru Dutt, and Bimal Roy. Films such as Ray’s “The Apu Trilogy” and Dutt’s “Pyaasa” challenged conventional norms and garnered international acclaim.

Bollywood Emergence: The term “Bollywood” emerged in the 1970s to describe the Hindi-language film industry centered in Mumbai. Bollywood films, known for their grandiose musicals and larger-than-life narratives, became synonymous with Indian cinema and achieved global recognition.

Technological Advancements: The 21st century brought with it significant technological advancements in Indian cinema, with digital technology revolutionizing the filmmaking process. Independent filmmakers and content creators began to challenge the dominance of mainstream cinema, exploring new avenues for storytelling.

Impact of the birth of Indian cinema

Cultural Representation: Indian cinema reflects the rich diversity of Indian culture, traditions, languages, and customs. Through its storytelling and visual imagery, Indian films have served as a mirror to society, addressing social issues, historical events, and cultural phenomena. The portrayal of Indian values, traditions, and lifestyles in films has helped foster a sense of cultural identity and pride among audiences, both in India and among the Indian diaspora.

Economic Growth: The Indian film industry, often referred to as Bollywood, contributes significantly to the country’s economy. With its massive production output and global reach, Bollywood generates billions of dollars in revenue annually, creating employment opportunities for millions of people involved in various aspects of filmmaking, including actors, directors, producers, technicians, and distributors. The success of Indian cinema has also fueled ancillary industries such as fashion, tourism, and merchandise, further contributing to economic growth and development.

Social Impact: Indian cinema has played a pivotal role in shaping public discourse and raising awareness about social issues. Films addressing topics such as poverty, gender inequality, caste discrimination, religious harmony, and environmental conservation have sparked meaningful conversations and inspired social change. Through their powerful narratives and compelling storytelling, Indian films have encouraged audiences to reflect on societal norms, challenge stereotypes, and advocate for justice and equality.

Global Influence: Indian cinema has garnered international acclaim and gained a dedicated global audience. Bollywood films, in particular, have achieved widespread popularity in countries around the world, transcending linguistic and cultural barriers. Indian actors, directors, and technicians have earned recognition and accolades at prestigious international film festivals and awards ceremonies, further enhancing the global profile of Indian cinema.

Cinematic Innovation: The birth of Indian cinema paved the way for cinematic innovation and experimentation. Filmmakers have continuously pushed the boundaries of storytelling, visual aesthetics, and technical craftsmanship, incorporating new technologies and narrative techniques to create immersive cinematic experiences. From the pioneering efforts of early filmmakers to the use of digital effects and 3D technology in contemporary films, Indian cinema has evolved and adapted to changing trends and audience preferences.

Cultural Diplomacy: Indian cinema serves as a potent tool for cultural diplomacy, fostering goodwill and promoting cross-cultural understanding on the global stage. Through film festivals, international collaborations, and cultural exchange programs, Indian cinema has facilitated dialogue and cooperation among nations, promoting cultural exchange and mutual appreciation.

Popular Statements given on the birth of Indian cinema

Satyajit Ray: “Indian cinema is not just a visual experience; it is a spiritual journey. It is a reflection of our culture, our values, and our dreams.”

Raj Kapoor: “The birth of Indian cinema was not just the birth of an industry; it was the birth of a new form of expression, a new way of storytelling that captured the essence of our nation.”

Guru Dutt: “Indian cinema has always been a melting pot of cultures, a celebration of diversity. It is this diversity that makes it so unique and so special.”

Amitabh Bachchan: “The birth of Indian cinema was a revolution, a turning point in our cultural history. It gave a voice to the voiceless, a platform to the marginalized, and a window to the world.”

Adoor Gopalakrishnan: “The birth of Indian cinema was not just a moment in history; it was a revolution in the making. It was the dawn of a new era, a golden age of creativity and innovation.”

Shyam Benegal: “The birth of Indian cinema was a testament to the resilience of the human spirit, a triumph of imagination over adversity. It was a journey of hope, of dreams, and of endless possibilities.”

Naseeruddin Shah: “Indian cinema has always been a reflection of our society, our culture, and our values. It has the power to inspire, to provoke, and to change lives.”

Shah Rukh Khan: “The birth of Indian cinema was not just the birth of an industry; it was the birth of a legacy, a legacy that continues to inspire generations of filmmakers and actors.”

Mira Nair: “Indian cinema is a celebration of life, of love, and of humanity. It is a mosaic of emotions, a tapestry of stories, and a symphony of colors.”

Deepa Mehta: “The birth of Indian cinema was a moment of magic, a moment of wonder, a moment of possibility. It was the birth of a dream, a dream that continues to enchant and captivate audiences around the world.”

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