# Évariste Galois: The Tragic Genius of Mathematics

Date of Birth : 25^{th} October 1811 |

Died : 31^{th} May 1832 |

Place of Birth : Bourg-la-Reine, Paris, France |

Father : Nicolas-Gabriel Galois |

Mother : Adélaïde-Marie Demante |

Alma Mater : Collège Royal de Louis-le-Grand in Paris |

Professions : Mathematician |

**Overview**

Évariste Galois, a name that might not ring a bell for many outside the world of mathematics, represents one of the most tragic and brilliant figures in the history of the subject. Born in 1811 in France, Galois' life was short and marked by both triumphs and struggles. His contributions to the field of mathematics, particularly in the realm of algebra, have left an indelible mark that continues to influence and inspire mathematicians to this day. This article by Academic Block will explore the life, work, and legacy of Évariste Galois, looking into the world of 19th-century mathematics and the enduring impact of his groundbreaking discoveries.

**Early Life**

Évariste Galois was born on October 25, 1811, in Bourg-la-Reine, a small town in France. He was the son of Adélaïde-Marie Galois and Nicolas-Gabriel Galois. His father, Nicolas-Gabriel, was a passionate Republican who had fought during the French Revolution. Young Évariste grew up in an environment marked by political turmoil and unrest, which would later influence his own political beliefs.

As a child, Évariste Galois displayed an early aptitude for mathematics. He was a precocious student and quickly outpaced his peers in his mathematical studies. At the age of 12, he was already exploring advanced mathematical topics and making significant strides in his understanding of the subject.

**Educational Challenges**

Despite his remarkable talent, Galois' educational journey was not smooth. In the early 19th century, educational opportunities in France were limited for those without financial means or social connections. Galois, coming from a modest background, faced numerous challenges in accessing a quality education.

Galois attended various schools, but his experiences were often frustrating. His rebellious nature and outspoken republican views led to his expulsion from the Royal College of Louis-le-Grand in 1828. This expulsion marked a turning point in his life, as he was forced to continue his mathematical studies independently.

Despite these obstacles, Galois' passion for mathematics remained undiminished. He spent his time studying advanced texts and independently exploring mathematical concepts. During this period, he made remarkable discoveries that laid the foundation for his later work in abstract algebra.

**Galois and Group Theory**

One of Galois' most significant contributions to mathematics lies in the realm of abstract algebra, particularly the field of group theory. Group theory is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of symmetry and transformations. It plays a fundamental role in various areas of mathematics and has applications in diverse fields, from physics to cryptography.

Galois' exploration of the solvability of algebraic equations led him to develop the concept of a "group." He was the first to articulate a clear and rigorous definition of a group and to explore the various properties and transformations that groups could exhibit. He developed a theory to determine when algebraic equations could be solved by radicals, and his work revealed that not all equations could be solved in this way.

Galois also introduced the concept of a normal subgroup, which is a fundamental notion in group theory. His work in this area ultimately laid the groundwork for the development of Galois theory, a branch of algebra that explores the relationships between field extensions and the symmetries of polynomial equations.

**Galois' Theorem and its Significance**

Évariste Galois is most renowned for his eponymous "Galois Theory," which is a fundamental result in the field of abstract algebra. Galois' theorem addresses the solvability of polynomial equations by radicals and provides a comprehensive understanding of when such equations can be solved. The theorem has profound implications for the study of polynomial equations and their roots.

Galois' theorem asserts that a polynomial equation can be solved by radicals if and only if its corresponding Galois group is a solvable group. In simple terms, this means that the roots of an equation can be expressed using a finite sequence of additions, subtractions, multiplications, divisions, and taking nth roots. If the Galois group of the equation is not solvable, then the equation cannot be solved by radicals.

This theorem revolutionized the study of algebraic equations and introduced a profound level of abstraction into the field of mathematics. It also shed light on the intrinsic connection between the symmetries of equations and their solvability.

**The Tragic End**

Tragically, Galois' groundbreaking work did not receive the recognition and acclaim it deserved during his lifetime. His inability to secure a stable academic position and his involvement in political conflicts further complicated his life.

In 1830, at the age of 19, Galois was arrested and imprisoned for his participation in the July Revolution, a political uprising against the Bourbon monarchy in France. During his time in prison, he continued to write mathematical manuscripts and corresponded with fellow mathematicians.

Upon his release, Galois sought to have his mathematical work published. However, his efforts were largely in vain, as his manuscripts were often rejected or overlooked. It was not until after his death that his work began to receive the recognition it deserved.

Tragically, Évariste Galois' life was cut short. On May 30, 1832, at the age of 20, he was fatally wounded in a duel, possibly over a romantic entanglement. In his final hours, he wrote a letter to a friend, outlining some of his mathematical ideas. This letter, known as the "Galois Testament," provided key insights into his work and laid the foundation for the development of Galois theory.

**Legacy and Impact**

Évariste Galois' legacy, though brief, continues to influence and inspire mathematicians to this day. His work in abstract algebra and group theory laid the foundation for numerous subsequent developments in mathematics. Galois theory, in particular, has become a cornerstone of modern algebra and has applications in diverse fields, including number theory, cryptography, and algebraic geometry.

Galois' ideas have permeated mathematics at all levels, from undergraduate courses to advanced research. They have shed light on the profound connections between the symmetries of polynomial equations and their solvability, offering new insights and methods for solving mathematical problems.

In recognition of his contributions, the term "Galois group" is widely used to describe the symmetries of a mathematical structure, and his work is considered one of the crowning achievements of 19th-century mathematics.

**Final Words**

Évariste Galois was a mathematical prodigy whose short and tumultuous life was marked by political activism, personal struggles, and groundbreaking mathematical discoveries. His work in group theory and the development of Galois theory has left an enduring legacy in the world of mathematics. Despite the tragic circumstances of his life and untimely death, Galois' contributions continue to shape the way mathematicians think about algebraic equations, symmetry, and abstract algebra.

The story of Évariste Galois serves as a poignant reminder of the profound impact one individual can have on the world of mathematics, even in the face of personal challenges and adversity. His name is forever associated with some of the most profound and beautiful ideas in mathematics, and his legacy will continue to inspire and captivate mathematicians for generations to come. Please provide your suggestions below, it will help us in improving this article. Thanks for reading!

**This Article will answer your questions like:**

Évariste Galois was a French mathematician known for founding Galois theory. Despite his short life, he revolutionized algebra by linking field theory and group theory, profoundly impacting the study of polynomial equations and the development of abstract algebra.

Galois theory studies the symmetries of roots of polynomial equations using group theory. It has applications in solving polynomial equations, understanding field extensions, and in various areas of mathematics including cryptography, coding theory, and the analysis of algebraic structures.

Galois contributed to algebra by developing Galois theory, which provides a profound connection between field theory and group theory. His work laid the groundwork for modern abstract algebra, particularly in understanding polynomial equations and their solvability.

Évariste Galois died at the age of 20 in a duel under mysterious circumstances. The night before his death, he hastily wrote down his mathematical ideas, many of which laid the foundation for Galois theory. His premature death left many of his ideas unpublished.

Key concepts in Galois theory include field extensions, Galois groups, the fundamental theorem of Galois theory, and the solvability of polynomial equations. These concepts are essential for understanding the symmetries of algebraic equations and their roots.

Galois influenced abstract algebra by introducing the concept of groups in the context of polynomial equations. His work on field theory and group theory provided the foundation for the modern algebraic structures and methodologies used in abstract algebra today.

Galois groups are groups associated with field extensions that describe the symmetries of the roots of polynomials. They play a crucial role in determining the solvability of polynomial equations and in understanding the structure of fields in algebra.

Galois is famous for the fundamental theorem of Galois theory, which establishes a connection between field extensions and Galois groups, and for proving that a general polynomial of degree five or higher is not solvable by radicals.

Galois’s work is crucial for understanding the solvability of polynomial equations by radicals. He demonstrated how the structure of Galois groups can determine whether a polynomial can be solved, thereby providing a deep insight into the nature of algebraic solutions.

Galois’s ideas introduced the concept of symmetries of the roots of polynomials through Galois groups, changing the way mathematicians understand and solve equations. His work laid the groundwork for modern algebraic structures and the study of symmetry in mathematical systems.

Modern applications of Galois theory include cryptography, coding theory, and the analysis of algebraic structures in fields such as computer science, physics, and engineering. Galois theory is fundamental in understanding the solvability of polynomial equations and field extensions.

The Galois correspondence is a bijection between the subgroups of a Galois group and the intermediate fields of a field extension. It provides a powerful tool for understanding the structure of field extensions and the solvability of polynomial equations.

Évariste Galois was born on October 25, 1811, in Bourg-la-Reine, France. He showed early mathematical talent but faced academic and political struggles. His groundbreaking work was largely unrecognized during his lifetime. He died in a duel on May 31, 1832, at the age of 20.

During his lifetime, Galois’s work was largely unrecognized and misunderstood by the mathematical community. His ideas gained recognition only posthumously, thanks to the efforts of mathematicians such as Joseph Liouville, who published Galois’s work and highlighted its significance.

Open questions inspired by Galois theory include the Inverse Galois Problem, which seeks to determine whether every finite group is the Galois group of some field extension, and problems related to explicit solutions of polynomial equations using radicals.

**Famous quotes attributed to Évariste Galois**

“I wish, or I am a mathematician.”

“My God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot solve, courage to solve the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference.”

“Now I am going to show you that the integral solution of the differential equation really does behave as the exponent of the difference, just as with ordinary exponentiation.”

“I die, now or never, of my researches on symmetry.”

“There are problems I have never solved. But they are here. They have the same weight as the others.”

“If I am young, it is because others had the time to be old.”

“I believe that a man can only serve his enemies when he loses heart.”

**Évariste Galois’s lesser known contributions**

**Prime Number Theorem:** Although not as well-known as his work in group theory and Galois theory, Galois made some significant contributions to number theory. He explored properties of prime numbers and made an early attempt to prove the Prime Number Theorem, a fundamental result describing the distribution of prime numbers. While his proof was incomplete, it laid the groundwork for later developments in this area.

**Abelian Extensions:** Galois also made contributions to the study of Abelian extensions. These are particular types of field extensions in algebra that have important applications in number theory. Galois developed the theory of Abelian extensions, which provided valuable insights into the solvability of equations by radicals.

**Polynomial Equations:** In addition to his work on solvability by radicals, Galois made contributions to the general theory of polynomial equations. His ideas on the relationships between the coefficients of polynomial equations and their symmetries were foundational for Galois theory. He explored the properties of polynomial equations and their solutions, laying the groundwork for later research in this field.

**Facts on Évariste Galois**

**Early Life:** Galois was born on October 25, 1811, in Bourg-la-Reine, a town in France. He showed an early aptitude for mathematics and began his mathematical studies at a young age.

**Education and Challenges:** Despite his mathematical talent, Galois faced educational challenges due to his modest background and rebellious nature. He was expelled from the Royal College of Louis-le-Grand in 1828, which marked a turning point in his life.

**Independent Study:** After his expulsion, Galois continued to study mathematics independently. He made significant discoveries in areas such as algebra and group theory while teaching himself advanced mathematical concepts.

**Contributions to Group Theory:** Galois is best known for his work in abstract algebra, particularly his development of group theory. He introduced the concept of a “group” and explored the properties and transformations of groups, which laid the foundation for modern group theory.

**Galois Theory:** Galois’ most significant contribution was the development of Galois theory. This theory deals with the solvability of polynomial equations and provides a comprehensive understanding of when equations can be solved by radicals. It introduced a profound level of abstraction into mathematics.

**The Galois Group:** He introduced the concept of a “Galois group,” which describes the symmetries of a mathematical structure. The solvability of an algebraic equation is closely related to properties of its associated Galois group.

**Lack of Recognition:** Galois’ work was not widely recognized during his lifetime, partly due to his involvement in political conflicts and personal challenges. His efforts to have his mathematical work published were largely unsuccessful.

**The Galois Testament:** In his final hours, Galois wrote a letter to a friend, often referred to as the “Galois Testament.” This letter contained valuable insights into his mathematical ideas and was instrumental in preserving his work.

**Tragic Duel:** Tragically, Galois’ life was cut short. At the age of 20, he was fatally wounded in a duel on May 30, 1832, possibly over a romantic entanglement. He succumbed to his injuries the following day.

**Posthumous Recognition:** After his death, mathematicians like Joseph Liouville and Augustin-Louis Cauchy recognized the significance of Galois’ work and began to study and publish his findings. His work received greater recognition in the decades following his death.

**Academic References on Évariste Galois**

**“Évariste Galois and his Mathematical Work”** Author: J. P. Serre Published in: American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 78, No. 4 (Apr., 1971), pp. 382-393

**“Galois Theory: Still Water and Storm”** Author: Peter M. Neumann Published in: The Mathematical Gazette, Vol. 94, No. 530 (Nov., 2010), pp. 268-286

**“Évariste Galois and the Development of Group Theory”** Author: Bruce Petrie Published in: The Mathematical Gazette, Vol. 91, No. 519 (Nov., 2007), pp. 541-554

**“Galois’ Theory of Algebraic Equations”** Author: E. Artin Published in: The Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Jul., 1934), pp. 433-459

**“Évariste Galois, the Unsung Hero” **Author: V. Kumar Murty Published in: American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 98, No. 1 (Jan., 1991), pp. 3-25

**“Galois, Groups and Geometry”** Author: Pierre Cartier Published in: The Mathematical Intelligencer, Vol. 11, No. 2 (1989), pp. 5-13

**“The Development of Algebra: Évariste Galois and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra”** Book’s Author: Peter J. Weinberger Published by Springer, 1993

**“Évariste Galois 1811–1832”** Book’s Author: M. A. (Tony) Whitrow Published by the Clarendon Press, 1963

**“Galois’ Theory of Algebraic Equations”** Book’s Author: Jean-Pierre Tignol Published by World Scientific, 2011