Telugu Cinema

Telugu Cinema: Tollywood's Contribution to Indian Cinema

Telugu Cinema, known as Tollywood, is a vibrant part of Indian cinema. From mythological epics to contemporary dramas, it showcases rich cultural heritage and technical brilliance. With stars like Chiranjeevi and Allu Arjun, Telugu films continue to set benchmarks in Indian cinema for innovation and entertainment.

Telugu Cinema

Overview

Telugu Cinema, often referred to as Tollywood, stands as a vibrant and integral part of Indian cinema, boasting a rich history, diverse storytelling, and a plethora of talented individuals. From its humble beginnings in the early 20th century to its current status as one of the leading film industries in India, Telugu Cinema has undergone significant transformations, reflecting the cultural, social, and technological changes of the times. In this article by Academic Block, we will explore in detail about beginning period to its current success of Telugu Cinema and its influence and popularity among today’s young generation.

The Early Years: Birth and Evolution

The genesis of Telugu cinema can be traced back to the year 1912 when the first silent Telugu film, “Bhishma Pratigna,” was released. Directed by Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu, a pioneer of Indian cinema, this landmark film laid the foundation for what would later become a thriving industry. In the ensuing years, filmmakers experimented with different genres and styles, gradually transitioning from silent films to talkies.

One of the most notable milestones of this era was the release of “Lavakusa” in 1934, directed by C. Pullaiah. Considered the first sound film in Telugu cinema, “Lavakusa” marked a significant advancement in the technological and artistic aspects of filmmaking. With the advent of sound, Telugu cinema witnessed a surge in popularity, attracting a wider audience and paving the way for future innovations.

Golden Era: The Rise of Legends

The period between the 1950s and 1970s is often referred to as the Golden Era of Telugu cinema. This era saw the emergence of legendary filmmakers, actors, and technicians who revolutionized the industry with their unparalleled talent and vision. Directors like B.N. Reddy, L.V. Prasad, and K. Viswanath ushered in a new wave of storytelling, characterized by realism, social relevance, and artistic finesse.

It was during this time that iconic actors such as N.T. Rama Rao (NTR), Akkineni Nageswara Rao (ANR), and Savitri rose to prominence, captivating audiences with their captivating performances and larger-than-life personas. Films like “Mayabazar” (1957), “Pathala Bhairavi” (1951), and “Devadasu” (1953) not only achieved critical acclaim but also set new benchmarks for commercial success.

The Golden Era also witnessed the emergence of musical maestros like Ghantasala, Pendyala Nageswara Rao, and S.P. Balasubrahmanyam, whose timeless melodies continue to resonate with audiences across generations. The seamless integration of music, dance, and drama became a hallmark of Telugu cinema, enriching its cultural heritage and identity.

Modern Renaissance: Innovation and Globalization

The latter half of the 20th century witnessed significant transformations in Telugu cinema, driven by technological advancements, globalization, and changing audience preferences. The advent of color cinema, widescreen formats, and stereophonic sound revolutionized the visual and auditory experience, enabling filmmakers to explore new avenues of creativity and expression.

The 1980s and 1990s saw the rise of a new generation of filmmakers who embraced experimentation and innovation. Directors like K. Raghavendra Rao, Ram Gopal Varma, and Mani Ratnam pushed the boundaries of conventional storytelling, exploring themes ranging from crime and romance to mythology and fantasy. This period also witnessed the emergence of superstar actors like Chiranjeevi, Nagarjuna, and Venkatesh, who redefined stardom with their versatility and charisma.

The turn of the millennium marked a new chapter in the history of Telugu cinema, characterized by increased globalization and digitalization. The proliferation of multiplexes, satellite television, and the internet transformed the distribution and consumption patterns, enabling Telugu films to reach a wider audience both domestically and internationally. Filmmakers began collaborating with international talent and exploring co-production opportunities, further enriching the cinematic landscape.

Contemporary Landscape: Diversity and Dynamism

In the 21st century, Telugu cinema has evolved into a diverse and dynamic industry, encompassing a wide range of genres, styles, and narratives. From big-budget blockbusters to independent gems, Telugu filmmakers continue to push the envelope, exploring themes that resonate with contemporary audiences while staying true to their cultural roots.

The emergence of young and visionary filmmakers like SS Rajamouli, Trivikram Srinivas, and Sukumar has injected fresh energy and creativity into the industry, garnering critical acclaim and commercial success both nationally and internationally. Films like “Baahubali: The Beginning” (2015) and its sequel “Baahubali: The Conclusion” (2017) have shattered box office records and earned global recognition for their grandeur and spectacle.

Furthermore, the rise of digital streaming platforms has provided a platform for independent filmmakers to showcase their work and reach a global audience without the constraints of traditional distribution channels. This democratization of filmmaking has fostered a thriving indie scene, characterized by bold storytelling, unconventional narratives, and fresh talent.

Originate of term “Pan-India Films”

The term “Pan-India Films” gained prominence in the Indian film industry largely due to the monumental success of the “Baahubali” film franchise. Directed by S.S. Rajamouli, “Baahubali: The Beginning” (2015) and its sequel “Baahubali: The Conclusion” (2017) captured the imagination of audiences across the country and beyond, transcending regional boundaries and languages.

The unprecedented success of “Baahubali” demonstrated the potential of Pan-India Films to not only break box office records but also unite audiences from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds under the umbrella of Indian cinema. The film’s epic narrative, grand visuals, and universal themes of love, betrayal, and redemption struck a chord with audiences across the country, transcending linguistic barriers and forging a sense of national pride and unity.

In the wake of “Baahubali,” several other filmmakers and production houses have embarked on projects with Pan-India appeal, aiming to capitalize on the growing demand for content that transcends linguistic and cultural barriers. These films often feature top talent from various film industries, utilize state-of-the-art technology, and boast large-scale marketing campaigns to maximize their reach and impact.

Looking Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities

As Telugu cinema continues to evolve and adapt to changing times, it faces a unique set of challenges and opportunities in the digital age. While technological advancements have opened up new avenues for creativity and innovation, they have also posed challenges in terms of piracy, content regulation, and audience engagement.

Moreover, the growing influence of streaming platforms and global entertainment conglomerates has raised questions about the preservation of regional identity and cultural heritage in an increasingly homogenized industry. It is imperative for stakeholders to strike a balance between commercial imperatives and artistic integrity, ensuring that Telugu cinema continues to thrive as a vibrant and inclusive cultural medium.

Final Words

Telugu Cinema stands as a testament to the power of storytelling and the resilience of an industry that has overcome numerous challenges to emerge as a powerhouse in Indian cinema. From its humble beginnings to its global recognition, Telugu Cinema continues to inspire, entertain, and provoke thought, ensuring its place in the annals of cinematic history. As audiences eagerly await the next blockbuster, one thing remains certain—Telugu Cinema’s journey is far from over. Hope you enjoyed reading about Tollywood with Academic Block, before leaving please share your valuable thoughts in comment section to make this article better. Thanks for Reading!

This Article will answer your questions like:

+ What is the history of Telugu Cinema? >

Telugu cinema, dating back to 1921 with the release of "Bhishma Pratigna," has evolved through different eras marked by technological advancements and societal changes. It blends traditional themes with modern storytelling, reflecting cultural shifts and technological progress over the decades.

+ What is Telugu cinema also known as? >

Telugu cinema is also known as Tollywood, a portmanteau of "Telugu" and "Hollywood," reflecting its status as a major film industry akin to Bollywood in India.

+ Who invented Telugu cinema? >

Telugu cinema was pioneered by Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu, who played a crucial role in the early stages of the industry by producing and directing silent films and establishing theaters in the region.

+ Which is the first movie ever made in Telugu? >

The first Telugu film is "Bhishma Pratigna," released in 1921. It was directed by Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu and produced by his son R. S. Prakash.

+ How did the term "Pan-India Films" get popular? >

The term "Pan-India Films" became popular as Telugu films began attracting audiences nationwide, with successful movies like "Baahubali" and "Saaho" breaking language barriers and achieving widespread acclaim and box office success.

+ What are some iconic films from the golden era of Telugu cinema? >

Iconic films from Telugu cinema's golden era include "Mayabazar," "Devadasu," and "Gundamma Katha," renowned for their timeless storytelling, memorable performances, and enduring cultural impact.

+ Who are some top actors and actresses in the history of Telugu cinema? >

Legendary actors like N.T. Rama Rao, Akkineni Nageswara Rao, and actresses like Savitri and Vijaya Nirmala have left indelible marks on Telugu cinema with their exceptional talent and extensive contributions.

+ Who are the legendary directors in Telugu cinema? >

Directors like K. Viswanath, Bapu, and S.S. Rajamouli are considered legends in Telugu cinema for their innovative storytelling, technical prowess, and ability to create memorable cinematic experiences.

+ How does Telugu Cinema compare to other regional film industries? >

Telugu cinema stands out for its dynamic storytelling, high production values, and ability to blend traditional values with modern narratives. It competes with and often influences other regional film industries in India, contributing significantly to the country's diverse cinematic landscape.

+ What are the challenges facing Telugu Cinema today? >

Today, Telugu cinema faces challenges such as piracy, changing audience preferences, and the need for more diverse storytelling. Economic pressures and competition from digital platforms also influence the industry's evolution and sustainability.

Leading directors of Telugu Cinema

S.S. Rajamouli: Renowned for his epic storytelling and groundbreaking visuals, S.S. Rajamouli has carved a niche for himself in Indian cinema. His magnum opus “Baahubali” series catapulted him to international fame and solidified his position as one of the top directors in Telugu Cinema.

Trivikram Srinivas: Known for his unique narrative style and witty dialogues, Trivikram Srinivas is a highly respected director in Telugu Cinema. Films like “Athadu,” “Julayi,” and “A…Aa” showcase his ability to blend entertainment with emotional depth.

Koratala Siva: With a string of successful films addressing social issues and delivering powerful messages, Koratala Siva has emerged as one of the leading directors in Telugu Cinema. His films, including “Mirchi,” “Srimanthudu,” and “Bharat Ane Nenu,” have struck a chord with audiences.

Sukumar: Known for his innovative storytelling and unconventional narratives, Sukumar has garnered acclaim for films like “Arya,” “Rangasthalam,” and “1: Nenokkadine.” His ability to blend artistry with commercial elements sets him apart as a visionary director.

Boyapati Srinu: Specializing in high-octane action dramas, Boyapati Srinu is known for his mass entertainers that cater to the pulse of the masses. Films like “Simha,” “Legend,” and “Sarrainodu” have established him as a prominent director in Telugu Cinema.

Krish Jagarlamudi: With a penchant for historical dramas and biopics, Krish Jagarlamudi has earned accolades for films like “Kanche,” “Gautamiputra Satakarni,” and “Manikarnika: The Queen of Jhansi.” His attention to detail and storytelling prowess have earned him a dedicated fan base.

Vamsi Paidipally: Known for his stylish filmmaking and emotional narratives, Vamsi Paidipally has delivered hits like “Brindavanam,” “Oopiri,” and “Maharshi.” His ability to balance commercial elements with meaningful storytelling makes him a sought-after director.

Top Actors and Actress in the history of Telugu Cinema

Actors:

Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (NTR): Often referred to as the father of Telugu cinema, NTR was a towering figure in the industry. Known for his powerful performances in mythological and social dramas, he also served as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. His iconic roles in films like “Maya Bazaar,” “Missamma,” and “Gundamma Katha” remain etched in the hearts of audiences.

Akkineni Nageswara Rao (ANR): Another legend of Telugu cinema, ANR was known for his versatility and charisma on screen. With a career spanning several decades, he starred in numerous iconic films such as “Devadasu,” “Maya Bazaar,” and “Prem Nagar.” His nuanced portrayals and romantic charm endeared him to audiences across generations.

Chiranjeevi: Widely regarded as one of the greatest actors in Telugu Cinema, Chiranjeevi has enjoyed an illustrious career spanning several decades. Known for his powerful screen presence, impeccable dancing skills, and versatility, Chiranjeevi has delivered numerous blockbuster hits and remains a beloved figure in the industry.

Mahesh Babu: Often referred to as the “Prince of Telugu Cinema,” Mahesh Babu is celebrated for his suave demeanor, natural acting prowess, and charismatic persona. With a string of successful films to his credit, Mahesh Babu commands a massive fan following and continues to be a major box office draw.

Prabhas: Best known for his portrayal of the titular character in the “Baahubali” series, Prabhas shot to superstardom on a global scale. His dedication to his craft, coupled with his impressive physique and intense screen presence, has earned him accolades and adoration from audiences worldwide.

Pawan Kalyan: With a unique blend of style, charisma, and social consciousness, Pawan Kalyan has carved a niche for himself in Telugu Cinema. Apart from his acting prowess, Pawan Kalyan is also a prominent political figure, adding another dimension to his multifaceted persona.

Allu Arjun: Known for his dynamic performances and exceptional dancing skills, Allu Arjun has established himself as one of the most bankable stars in Telugu Cinema. His ability to effortlessly transition between various genres and portray diverse characters has earned him a loyal fan base.

N.T. Rama Rao Jr. (NTR Jr.): As the scion of the legendary Nandamuri family, NTR Jr. carries forward the legacy of his illustrious grandfather, N.T. Rama Rao. With his remarkable acting talent, magnetic screen presence, and versatility, NTR Jr. has cemented his status as a top actor in Telugu Cinema.

Ram Charan: Son of Telugu megastar Chiranjeevi, Ram Charan has made a mark for himself with his compelling performances and impressive box office track record. His roles in films like “Magadheera” and “Rangasthalam” have earned him widespread acclaim and recognition.

Actresses:

Savitri: Widely regarded as one of the greatest actresses in Indian cinema, Savitri was known for her impeccable acting skills and expressive performances. She mesmerized audiences with her portrayals in films like “Maya Bazaar,” “Devadasu,” and “Missamma,” earning her the title of “Mahanati” (Great Actress).

Anushka Shetty: Renowned for her powerful performances and striking screen presence, Anushka Shetty has carved a niche for herself in Telugu Cinema. Known for her roles in films like “Arundhati,” “Baahubali,” and “Vedam,” Anushka is celebrated for her versatility and dedication to her craft.

Samantha Akkineni: With her charming persona and impressive acting skills, Samantha Akkineni has become one of the most sought-after actresses in Telugu Cinema. Known for her roles in films like “Ye Maaya Chesave,” “Majili,” and “Oh! Baby,” Samantha continues to win hearts with her performances.

Kajal Aggarwal: A veteran actress with a successful career spanning over a decade, Kajal Aggarwal has delivered several memorable performances in Telugu Cinema. Her roles in films like “Magadheera,” “Mr. Perfect,” and “Temper” have showcased her versatility and acting prowess.

Nayanthara: Though primarily associated with Tamil Cinema, Nayanthara has also made a significant impact in Telugu Cinema with her stellar performances. Known for her versatility and screen presence, Nayanthara has delivered memorable performances in films like “Sri Rama Rajyam,” “Raja Rani,” and “Aramm.”

Rashmika Mandanna: Rising to prominence in recent years, Rashmika Mandanna has quickly become a popular choice among filmmakers in Telugu Cinema. Known for her bubbly persona and natural acting talent, Rashmika has impressed audiences with her performances in films like “Geetha Govindam,” “Dear Comrade,” and “Sarileru Neekevvaru.”

Challenges & Opportunities Telugu Cinema facing today

Challenges:

Piracy: The rampant piracy of Telugu films poses a significant threat to the industry, resulting in revenue loss and discouraging investment in new projects.

Competition: Telugu cinema competes not only with other regional film industries within India but also with international cinema and digital streaming platforms, necessitating constant innovation and quality improvement to retain audience interest.

Audience Preferences: Changing audience preferences and demographics require filmmakers to strike a balance between catering to traditional tastes and embracing new storytelling formats and themes.

Quality vs. Quantity: While there is a steady influx of films being produced, maintaining high production values and storytelling standards amidst tight schedules and budgets remains a challenge.

Infrastructure and Resources: Despite advancements, the industry still faces infrastructural limitations in terms of studio facilities, technical expertise, and distribution networks, hindering the growth potential of Telugu cinema.

Opportunities:

Digital Platforms: The proliferation of digital streaming platforms offers a new avenue for content distribution, allowing Telugu filmmakers to reach a global audience and experiment with diverse storytelling formats.

International Collaborations: Collaborating with international production houses and talent opens up opportunities for co-productions, cross-cultural exchange, and access to global markets.

Emerging Markets: With the rise of non-traditional markets such as China and Southeast Asia, there is potential for Telugu cinema to explore new territories and forge partnerships for mutual benefit.

Content Innovation: Embracing innovative storytelling, niche genres, and diverse narratives can attract niche audiences and differentiate Telugu cinema in a crowded entertainment landscape.

Brand Endorsements and Merchandising: Leveraging the popularity of actors and franchises for brand endorsements, merchandise tie-ins, and ancillary revenue streams can provide additional sources of income for filmmakers and production houses.

Government Support: Continued support from government initiatives, subsidies, and policies aimed at promoting regional cinema can provide a conducive environment for growth and sustainability.

History of Telugu Cinema

Early Beginnings: The inception of Telugu Cinema can be attributed to the visionary efforts of Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu, often hailed as the father of Telugu Cinema. Naidu, a filmmaker and exhibitor, played a crucial role in the development of the industry by producing short films and documentaries showcasing the scenic beauty of South India.

Emergence of Talkies: The introduction of sound in Indian cinema revolutionized the industry, and Telugu Cinema was quick to embrace this new technology. In 1931, the first Telugu talkie, “Bhakta Prahlada,” directed by H.M. Reddy, marked a significant milestone in the history of Telugu Cinema, heralding the beginning of a new era.

Golden Era: The decades following India’s independence witnessed the emergence of the Golden Era of Telugu Cinema. Filmmakers like B.N. Reddy, Kadiri Venkata Reddy, and L.V. Prasad produced a string of socially relevant and artistically compelling films that captivated audiences. Classics such as “Mayabazar,” “Devadasu,” and “Pathala Bhairavi” are celebrated even today for their timeless appeal.

Rise of Superstars: The 1970s and 1980s saw the rise of iconic actors who would come to dominate Telugu Cinema. Personalities like N.T. Rama Rao (NTR), Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Krishna, and Sobhan Babu captivated audiences with their charisma and talent, shaping the industry’s landscape for years to come.

Global Recognition: In recent years, Telugu Cinema has garnered widespread recognition not only within India but also on the global stage. Blockbusters like the “Baahubali” series, directed by S.S. Rajamouli, have shattered box office records and earned critical acclaim internationally, showcasing the industry’s ability to resonate with diverse audiences.

Diversification of Content: Telugu Cinema has evolved to encompass a diverse range of themes and genres, catering to varied audience preferences. While commercial entertainers remain popular, filmmakers have also explored socially relevant subjects, women-centric narratives, and experimental storytelling, contributing to the richness and diversity of Telugu Cinema.

Comparision of Telugu Cinema with other Regional cinema

Scale and Production: Telugu Cinema is one of the largest film industries in India, producing a significant number of films annually. The scale of production, especially in terms of budgets and grandeur, often rivals that of Bollywood.

Star Power: Telugu Cinema boasts a plethora of talented actors who enjoy immense popularity not only in the Telugu-speaking states but also across India and even internationally. Superstars like Chiranjeevi, Mahesh Babu, Allu Arjun and Prabhas have a massive fan following.

Technological Advancements: Telugu filmmakers have embraced technological advancements, particularly in visual effects (VFX) and cinematography, to create visually stunning spectacles. Films like “Baahubali” have set new benchmarks in terms of production quality.

Diversity of Themes: Telugu Cinema explores a wide range of themes and genres, from commercial entertainers to socially relevant dramas and experimental films. This diversity appeals to a broad spectrum of audiences.

Cultural Impact: Telugu Cinema plays a significant role in shaping cultural narratives and influencing societal trends, particularly in the Telugu-speaking states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Films often reflect local customs, traditions, and values.

Global Recognition: In recent years, Telugu Cinema has gained recognition on the global stage, with films like “Baahubali” receiving acclaim at international film festivals and breaking box office records worldwide.

Iconic films from the Golden Era of Telugu cinema

“Pathala Bhairavi” (1951): Directed by Kadiri Venkata Reddy, “Pathala Bhairavi” is another landmark film of the Golden Era. Starring N.T. Rama Rao and Malathi, the film follows the journey of a young man who ventures into the underworld to claim a magical wish-granting gem. With its rich visuals, enchanting music, and gripping narrative, “Pathala Bhairavi” remains a classic of Telugu cinema.

“Devadasu” (1953): Directed by Vedantam Raghavaiah, “Devadasu” is a tragic romance based on the novel of the same name by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Starring Akkineni Nageswara Rao (ANR) and Savitri in the lead roles, the film explores the ill-fated love story between Devadasu and Parvathi. Known for its soulful music and poignant performances, “Devadasu” is considered one of the greatest love stories in Indian cinema.

“Missamma” (1955): Directed by L.V. Prasad, “Missamma” is a romantic comedy that follows the misadventures of a young couple who pretend to be married to secure jobs. Starring N.T. Rama Rao, Savitri, and Akkineni Nageswara Rao, the film is known for its sparkling wit, catchy music, and stellar performances. “Missamma” remains a beloved classic of Telugu cinema.

“Mayabazar” (1957): Directed by Kadiri Venkata Reddy, “Mayabazar” is a timeless classic that seamlessly blends mythology, fantasy, and comedy. Featuring an ensemble cast including N.T. Rama Rao (NTR), S.V. Ranga Rao, and Savitri, the film is renowned for its innovative special effects, captivating storytelling, and memorable performances.

“Gundamma Katha” (1962): Directed by Kamalakara Kameswara Rao, “Gundamma Katha” is a heartwarming family drama that revolves around the lives of two families linked by marriage. Starring N.T. Rama Rao, Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Savitri, and Jamuna, the film explores themes of love, sacrifice, and reconciliation with humor and emotion. “Gundamma Katha” is celebrated for its memorable characters, witty dialogue, and timeless appeal.

Nartanasala (1963): Directed by Kamalakara Kameswara Rao, “Nartanasala” is a mythological epic that follows the adventures of the Pandavas during their exile in the forest. The film is renowned for its lavish sets, elaborate dance sequences, and stellar performances by the cast.

Sankarabharanam (1980): Directed by K. Vishwanath, “Sankarabharanam” is a musical drama that tells the story of a classical singer who overcomes various obstacles to achieve fame and recognition. The film is celebrated for its soul-stirring music, authentic portrayal of classical music, and powerful performances by the cast.

Shiva (1989): Directed by Ram Gopal Varma, “Shiva” is a gritty crime drama that follows the story of a young man who takes on a corrupt college system to seek justice for his friend’s death. The film is praised for its realistic portrayal of campus politics, intense action sequences, and groundbreaking filmmaking techniques.

Pokiri (2006): Directed by Puri Jagannadh, “Pokiri” is an action-packed thriller that follows the exploits of a fearless police officer who goes undercover to dismantle a criminal empire. The film is renowned for its high-octane action sequences, gripping storyline, and charismatic performances by the lead actors.

Baahubali: The Beginning (2015): Directed by S.S. Rajamouli, “Baahubali: The Beginning” is an epic historical fiction film that follows the journey of a young prince who embarks on a quest to reclaim his kingdom from a tyrannical ruler. The film is praised for its grand scale, breathtaking visual effects, and compelling storytelling.

Arjun Reddy (2017): Directed by Sandeep Reddy Vanga, “Arjun Reddy” is a bold and unconventional romantic drama that explores themes of love, heartbreak, and redemption. The film is acclaimed for its raw and realistic portrayal of relationships, as well as the powerhouse performance by its lead actor.

Academic References on Telugu Cinema

  1. Ramachandran, T. M. (2013). 50 years of Telugu cinema, 1931-1981. Cinema India-International, 3(3), 52-59.
  2. Kavirayani, S. (2018). A journey through Tollywood: The history and evolution of Telugu cinema. Hyderabad: Hyderabad Book Trust.
  3. Srinivas, M. (2009). Telugu cinema: Past, present, and future. Journal of Indian Cinema Studies, 3(2), 87-104.
  4. Reddy, C. K. (2016). The emergence of Telugu cinema: A historical perspective. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  5. Rajadhyaksha, A. (Ed.). (2012). Encyclopedia of Indian cinema (Vol. 2). London: British Film Institute.
  6. Rao, V. S. (2014). Telugu cinema: A cultural analysis. Hyderabad: Kakatiya University Press.
  7. Bhaskar, B. V. (2007). Tollywood: The rise of Telugu cinema. Asian Journal of Communication, 17(3), 336-355.
  8. Chakravarty, S. (2010). National identity in Indian popular cinema, 1947-1987. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  9. Gopalakrishnan, S. (2015). Telugu cinema and its impact on society: A sociological perspective. Journal of Indian Society of Criminology & Criminalistics, 36(1), 123-136.
  10. Murthy, S. K. (2011). From silent to sound: The evolution of Telugu cinema. Journal of Indian Film Studies, 5(1), 45-60.
  11. Sen, S. (2008). Politics and cinema in South India: The case of Telugu cinema. South Asian Popular Culture, 6(1), 37-52.
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